Islamic Spain

The history of Muslims in Spain dates back over a thousand years, to the period of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula.

The history of Muslims in Spain dates back over a thousand years, to the period of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula (711-1492). This period saw the arrival of Muslim armies in the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the establishment of a Muslim state that covered most of the Peninsula for several centuries. The period of Muslim rule in Spain is often referred to as the “Golden Age of Al-Andalus,” a time when Spain was a center of cultural, scientific, and intellectual activity.

In 711, Muslim armies, led by the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the Visigothic king Roderick, bringing an end to the Visigothic kingdom and establishing Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the next few centuries, the Muslim state expanded to cover most of the Peninsula, including the modern-day regions of Portugal, Andalusia, and parts of central Spain.

The Muslims who ruled Spain during this period were known as the Moors. They were a mix of Berbers, Arabs, and other ethnic groups who had come to Spain from North Africa and the Middle East. The Moors brought with them their religion, Islam, which quickly spread among the local population. By the 10th century, most of the population of Al-Andalus was Muslim.

During the period of Muslim rule, Al-Andalus became a center of cultural and intellectual activity. The Moors brought with them a rich cultural heritage and a tradition of learning that helped to establish Spain as a center of culture and learning in Europe. Muslim scholars and scientists made significant contributions to fields such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy. The cities of Cordoba, Granada, and Seville became centers of learning, with the famous libraries of Cordoba attracting scholars from all over the world.

In the 11th and the 12th centuries, Al-Andalus was plagued by internal conflict and was gradually weakened by the Christian kingdoms in the north. The Christian kingdoms, led by Castile and Aragon, gradually reconquered the Iberian Peninsula, culminating in the fall of Granada in 1492, which marked the end of Muslim rule in Spain.

After the fall of Granada, the Spanish Inquisition was established to ensure the conversion of the remaining Muslim and Jewish populations to Catholicism. This led to the persecution and forced conversion of thousands of Muslims and Jews, and many fled the country to avoid persecution. Those who remained in Spain were subjected to strict controls and discrimination, and many of their cultural and religious practices were banned.

Despite this, the influence of the Moors and their culture can still be seen in Spain today. Many of the architectural and cultural landmarks of Al-Andalus, such as the Alhambra palace in Granada, continue to be popular tourist destinations.


The cuisine, music, and dance of Spain also bear the influence of the Moors, and elements of their language, such as the Spanish word for orange (naranja), continue to be used in modern Spanish.

One of the most famous achievements of the Muslims in Spain was the development of the Cordoba Mosque, which was later transformed into the famous Mezquita Cathedral. The mosque was built in the 8th century and was one of the largest and most magnificent in the world at the time. Its intricate arches, horseshoe-shaped arches, and elaborate calligraphy are testimony to the incredible level of craftsmanship and artistic talent that existed in Al-Andalus during the period of Muslim rule.

Another important cultural legacy of the Moors in Spain is their architecture. The Alhambra palace in Granada, for example, is a stunning example of Moorish architecture, with its intricate tile work, arches, and ornate carvings. The Alhambra is now one of the most popular tourist destinations in Spain and is considered one of the most beautiful examples of Moorish architecture in the world.

The influence of the Moors can also be seen in the cuisine of Spain. Many traditional Spanish dishes, such as paella, gazpacho, and ajo blanco, have roots in Moorish cooking, and the use of spices such as cumin, coriander, and saffron is a testament to the influence of the Moors on Spanish cuisine.

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the history of Muslims in Spain, and efforts have been made to reclaim and preserve the cultural heritage of the Moors. This has included the restoration of historic sites, the publication of books and research on the history of Muslims in Spain, and the establishment of cultural organizations that aim to promote awareness of the contributions of Muslims to Spanish culture and history.


In conclusion, the history of Muslims in Spain dates back over a thousand years, to the period of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula. The period of Muslim rule in Spain saw the establishment of a rich and diverse culture, with the Muslim influence still visible throughout the Andalusian parts of Spain to this day.

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